Regional reports

Asia Pacific

The index analyses 92 cities across Asia and Australasia. How do they compare with other cities across the globe? Asian cities stand to lose $241.28bn of GDP to risk each year. This represents 44% of the global total. This is due to rising asset prices in the continent, allied with its exposure to risk, particularly natural catastrophe. Fifty four per cent of its exposure comes from natural causes, while 46% is derived from man-made risks. Asia’s exposure to natural catastrophe is higher than other continents. By comparison, just 33% of Europe’s GDP@Risk is derived from natural causes. Five of the world’s top ten cities with the biggest GDP Risk are in Asia, including Tokyo, which stands to lose more of its GDP ($24.31bn) to the 22 risks than any other city


The index analyses 66 European cities – from Dublin on the Irish Sea to Novosibirsk in Siberia. How do they compare with other cities across the globe? European cities account for just 13% of the global GDP@Risk total, in part due to their stronger resilience levels. However, the continent still stands to lose a substantial amount – $70.33bn each year – to risk. London, Moscow, Paris and Madrid combined account for $24.63bn – more than a third of Europe’s expected loss. However, the risk profles of London and Paris are markedly different to those of Moscow, reflecting a sharp divergence between the risks affecting western and eastern European economies.

Latin America

The index analyses 31 cities in Latin America. How do they compare with other cities across the globe? Latin American cities account for just 8% of the global total GDP@Risk, in part due to their lower GDP levels.

Middle East and Africa

The GDP@Risk in the 28 Middle Eastern cities included in the index, is, at $65.78bn, higher than the $31.42bn expected loss in 28 African cities. However, these two regions have similarities in the types of risks they are most exposed to. Interstate conflict is the most costly threat for both: Middle Eastern cities stand to lose $25.46bn to this threat and African cities,
$13.28bn. Both regions also have civil conflict in their top three risks, although for this threat, the cost to African cities ($7.88bn) is marginally higher than for those in the Middle East ($7.79bn). Geopolitical and security risks will cost this region more than any other, accounting for $61.44bn or two-thirds of the total for all risks.

North America

The index analyses 34 cities in North America – 28 in the US and six in Canada. How do they compare with other cities across the globe?